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The special cubic equation was used [ 24 ]. It was assumed that the measured response depended only on the proportions of the substrates present in the mixture. When all the environmental factors were held constant, the response measures as cumulative methane production and VS removal were the functions of only the proportions of feed substrates used.

ANOVA was used to test the fitness of the model, and response surface methods were used to determine the optimum mixture ratio for maximum methane production. Then, methane production from the best mixture ratio of un-pretreated Ss, Fw, and Lm was compared with that from the best mixture ratio of pretreated microwave-irradiated Ss, Fw, and Lm. Results and Discussion 3. Pretreatments Microwave-irradiated Ss showed the highest solubilization efficiency, followed by ultrasonicated Ss It is known that acoustic cavitation during ultrasonication occurs more readily in the range of 20—40 kHz [ 15 ], and such low frequencies have been known to be the most effective for sludge floc disintegration [ 2 ].

Under these conditions, the results Table 2 showed that the method was efficient at solubilizing the sludge. The thermally treated Ss showed a solubilization efficiency of 5. Park [ 34 ] observed that SCOD concentration increased by 12 times with microwave-irradiation, and this result was similar to the result of this study, that is, an increase by 16 times.

The highest biodegradability as a measure by methane production and highest methane production was achieved by microwave irradiation The second highest biodegradability was achieved by ultrasonication Low frequencies 20—40 kHz have been recognized as the most efficient [ 2 ]. Microwave irradiation and ultrasonic treatment have been known to cause sludge floc disintegration and cell lysis [ 16 , 34 ].

The results showed that these two treatment methods resulted in high sludge solubilization and biodegradability Table 2 and Fig. Eskicioglu et al. Heat pretreatment provided better hydrolysis performance compared to microwave treatment.

A review of crop straw pretreatment methods for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in China

Guo et al. In their study, ultrasonic treatment resulted in a slightly the better performance than microwave irradiation. Overall, the findings indicated the strong effect of microwave irradiation and ultrasonic waves on sludge solubilization and methane production. Also, as summarized in the Table S2 , it can be seen that the highest efficiency pretreatment method and methane emission amount are different for each document.

These results are considered to be caused by differences in properties of sludge resulted from the region. In this study, microwave irradiation appeared to be the best pretreatment, and thus, the subsequent experiments for the optimum co-digestion mixture ratio with Ss, Fw, and Lm were conducted using microwave pretreatment. It generated 10 waste substrate runs, as shown in Table S3. This appears to be because the VS removal of Lm was lower than that of Ss. In addition, in each condition that included Ss, the cumulative methane production and VS removal exhibited higher efficiency than those for the co-digestion of un-pretreated Ss, because biodegradability increased due to the pretreatment of Ss.

The efficiency of the cumulative methane production, VS removal, and biodegradability depended on the mixture ratio of Fw. In particular, the cumulative methane production of R8, in which As a result, it was found that Fw exhibits higher VS removal than Ss and Lm, and thus, its biodegradability is also high when subjected to anaerobic digestion. Callaghan et al. Similarly, Yu et al. Rare Analysis by Mixture Ratio The coefficient of determination R-sq was calculated to numerically express the accuracy of cumulative methane production and VS removal depending on the mixture ratio.

As a result, the R-sq values of cumulative methane production were In addition, the T- and P-values were analyzed to assess the significance of the coefficients.


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Mixture equations before pretreatment, which exclude the insignificant coefficients of sludge, are as shown in Eq. As a result of regression analysis, it was found that cumulative methane production and VS removal had a synergy effect when Ss, Fw, and Lm were subjected to co-digestion simultaneously. A comparison with the results of the BMP test indicates that higher efficiency can be derived by increasing the mixture ratio of Fw with a high organic content.

This result is in agreement with the results of Callaghan et al. Next, after Ss, Fw, and Lm were fixed at three points in Fig.

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A contour-shaped surface graph was used to show the effect of each mixture ratio on the result. Higher ratios of food waste in the mixture were found to favor the maximization of methane production during the co-digestion of Ss, Fw, and Lm, regardless of sludge pretreatment.

In addition, as can be seen from Fig. This appears to be because of the high organic content and high biodegradability of Fw.

A review of crop straw pretreatment methods for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in China

The optimum ratio after pretreatment was found to be However, it is difficult to process the total amount of Ss through the co-digestion of un-pretreated Ss, because Ss accounts for Only Therefore, microwave pretreatment was performed followed by co-digestion to increase the solubilization of Ss.

As a result, the mixture ratio of Ss was This favors flexibility in the operation of co-digestion for the mixture ratios of Ss, Fw, and Lm, which are produced in varying amounts, depending on the situation. It is expected that energy recovery and economic efficiency will increase and secondary environmental pollution will be reduce using this approach.

Conclusions Ss, which is a mixture of waste activated sludge and primary sludge, requires pretreatment in order to enhance anaerobic digestion performance. The highest biodegradability Thus, microwave irradiation W for 6 m was used in the subsequent co-digestion study as the sludge pretreatment method. Co-digestion with pretreated Ss produced higher cumulative methane production than co-digestion with un-pretreated Ss. Analysis of the cumulative methane yield measured according to the mixture ratio of pretreated Ss using the simplex centroid design method, the optimum mixture ratio was found to be The optimum mixture ratio of Ss after pretreatment This allows for flexibility in the mixture ratios of Ss, Fw, and Lm, which are produced in varying amounts, depending on the situation.

It is expected that energy recovery and economic efficiency will increase and secondary environmental pollution will reduce using this approach. Supplementary Information eersuppl. References 1. Chem Eng J. J Hazard Mater. Siegart I, Banks CThe effect of volatile fatty acid additions on the anaerobic digestion of cellulose and glucose in batch reactors. Process Biochem. Chem Eng Proc. Renew Sust Energ Rev. Saha M, Eskicioglu C, Marin JMicrowave, ultrasonic and chemo-mechanical pretreatments for enhancing methane potential of pulp mill wastewater treatment sludge.

Bioresour Technol. J Biosci Bioeng. Water Res. Guo L, Li X-M, Bo X, et alImpacts of sterilization, microwave and ultrasonication pretreatment on hydrogen producing using waste sludge. Wang J, Wan WComparison of different pretreatment methods for enriching hydrogen-producing bacteria from digested sludge.

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Int J Hydrog Energ. Ultrason Sonochem. Borges ESM, Chernicharo CALEffect of thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge on the bioavailability and biodegradability characteristics of the organic fraction. Braz J Chem Eng.

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